TITLE 3D-Printed Carrageenan-Based Nanocomposites for Force-Sensing Applications
AUTHOR Vera M. Macedo, Nelson Pereira, Carmen R. Tubio, Pedro Martins, Carlos M. Costa,* and Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez
YEAR 2023
JOURNAL Advanced Engineering Materials

Technological development is leading to an exponential growth in the implementation of sensors and actuators where the concern about environmental problems is also focusing on electronic waste (e-waste), which is composed of hazardous materials, corresponding to a large part of urban waste, and has a strong environmental impact. Therefore, more environmentally friendly electronic components are required, natural polymers being a suitable approach to solve or attenuate those problems. This work reports on a bio-based polymer, carrageenan, embedded with dielectric barium titanate (BTO) nanoparticles to tailor the electrical response. The inclusion of the filler induces slight modifications in the thermal characteristics and on the physicochemical properties of the polymer matrix. On the other hand, the mechanical and dielectric properties improve with the addition of BTO and a high dielectric constant of ε0 13 000 is obtained for the composite with 20 wt% BTO content. The increase of the dielectric constant is accompanied by a high AC electrical conductivity, leading to a high-ε0 –high-loss material. The 20 wt% BTO composite is used to produce a force measuring sensor, due to the highest dielectric response. The functional response of the sensing system shows good stability over cycling.

KEYWORDS carrageenan, polymer–matrix composites, sensors, smart materials
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